With all the advent of the film WarGames, towards the recent prosecution and suicide info freedom activist and coder, Aaron Swartz, hackers and hacking have become part of our language, imagination, plus cultural landscape. With their beginnings in the 1950s to the present, our collective conception from the hacker has gone from hero in order to antihero; from political prankster in order to rebellious teenager, to criminal master-mind out to undermine the social material.
Embedded within the archetype of this trickster figure are also our unconscious worries and ambiguous connections to technology. Because of the direct link with technologies, hacking and hacker culture is especially illustrative of our relationship to fear of technology, and its power and control. This is so because technology is not only about the physicality of machines; additionally it is about our relationship to them.
If we look at the language of computers on their own, it is apparent that the idea of relationship was built in from the beginning. In one instance, powerful mainframe and UNIX systems which came before the PC are called hosts. After a network connection handshake, if allowed, a new user may login as a guest. This romantic relationship also rides on the assumptions that technology is essentially hostile and that controlling technology requires knowledge and control. When we speak of computers as user-friendly there is the implicit assumption that this will be the exception-that there has been some sort of modification to change the essential wild nature of the animal.
We have windows, wizard programs, and applications that shield us in the underlying complexity of the binary program code of ones and zeros. These types of manageable layers that distance the user from the confusing innards of the device shield us from the workings that may come loose. It is this confusion and lack of knowledge that the hacker, through social engineering can give up, and can gain control of technology.
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As one who has the expertise, the development guru has not only engineered the technology, but is the only one most able to modify, and thus hack. The particular archetypal hacker thus becomes not just the monster’s maker and keeper, but is also demonized as list.
Added to the mix of our partnership to technology, we have gone from a culture of openly sharing research and ideas, to a culture of commoditizing information for profit. In order to sell information requires protecting this as one does a secret-behind securely locked doors. The first generation of hackers was thought of as computer geniuses who went on to form start-up companies and then huge corporations such as Apple company and Microsoft. They were also exactly the same generation who founded the open-source movement. However , the second generation cyber-terrorist, their children, grew up with PCs in their homes and schools.
If we think about our government and corporations since Senex (old man) institutions, the first generation hackers represent the status quo, the guard that the Puer aeternus (eternal boy) second generation rebelled against. This boy culture used competence over technology to define their own independence and to confront adult expert. Not surprisingly then, each generation sets up the cycle for the next.
It really is no coincidence that we language and call upon software wizard applications to help us with our computer alchemy. Because of our relationship with technology plus our distance from its internal operation, its unfathomable processes can take on the mystical quality to the uninitiated. Because the veiled, uncanny operations of the microchip have hidden subtlety, we might watch this power as belonging to the womanly realm. Further, if we look on the machine as a reinvention of nature, it becomes more evident that it takes some authority to master it; a powerful operator to tame it.
We have been both in awe of the machine as mysterious beast, and its sorcerer who can write and cast the spells to gentle and control this. This wonderment in turn gives the magus hacker command and control over these whose relationship with technology will be inferior. As in WarGames, with our technical ignorance, we may view the hacker as boy genius who both exposes the W. O. P. Ur (War Operation Plan Response) creature and in turn saves us from its damage of humanity.